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DO understand the dynamic of the relationship between the addict and their addiction.Also determine if you are in any way enabling them to continue using or being an umbrella or safety net for them. They may not ever get WELL, you must realize this and accept it.If you can not get your self to the point where this fact does not wreak havoc on you personally, then YOU MUST put distance between yourself and the user.And yes, there’s plenty of German food and beverage at just about every exhibit.Back in late April of 2013, Dad was on the hunt for a new toy.They are not the person you love and yet they are at the same time.
The person you love is not really in control at this point. This addiction really does not care about you or your loved one's. It cares only about satisfying it's chemically derived need.
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This 17 page document (Study Guide) was uploaded by Paula Juliana to Study Soup on Thu Oct 16 2014.
The document belongs to the SPC 2608 course at Florida International University taught by Professor Jose Brea in the Fall term of 2014. For similar materials, see: 2608 - Jose Brea, FIU Communications, and FIU Course Notes.
Date Created: 10/15/14 Midterm Study Guide Thursday September 18 2014 114 PM Chapter 4 the most common form of speaking 0 Communicating is said to happen when the receivers internalize the information that is presented 0 It39s important to speak in a clear logical manner about a topic that is important to the needs of your audience 0 Ancient Greek mythology Prometheus was punished by other Gods for teaching humans how to make fire He had given the first significant speech of demonstration 0 There are 3 types of Informative Speeches They may use different organizational patterns but are all prepared in the same manner 1 A quothow toquot speech that demonstrates how to do something or how to complete a process Ex how to recognize child abuse or how to write a resume To define a topic for the audience Defining terminology or describing concepts or describing a person policy or event Ex defining The various types of automobile insurance or de ning current drugs used in AIDS research or a biographical presentation on Winston Churchill 3 A fully developed story with one or more characters a scene physical action and a plot It tells the story of how somethingsomeone was developed changed or originated Told as a story from beginning to end and always uses the chronological organizational pattern 8 Step Process for Informative Speeches 1The General Purpose What you ultimately want to accomplish in the presentation inform persuade or entertain the audience Ihe purpose W never be spoken by you its purpose is to determine what type of research info you need to locate nformative you need a variety of information that informs audience about topic persuasive you need to build an argument entertaining needs different type of supporting material 2The Specific Purpose What you want the audience to be able to do at the end of the speech It will never be spoken by you but it39s to help narrow down your topic sufficiently It should start off with quot At the end of my speech the audience will be able toquot It should contain a number that corresponds with the main points in the body of the speech Ex short speeches up to 20min long the number should be 25 It should be a full sentence not a phrase It should be a statement not a question It should have a measurable verb to list to explain to define to describel u uuuu Ci u i uuj ul Ex quot At the end of my speech the audience will be able to define the 3 types of learning stylesquot 3Thesis Statement The central idea with the purpose to share info and create a general understanding of the topic It39s the most important statement in the intro which indicates to the audience the main purpose Must be clear and concise and is actually spoken in the intro Don39t propose a particular point of view Don39t urge or suggest any physical action by the audience Don39t list the main points of your speech t39s a 1 sentence summary of the entire speech Ex Martin Luther King protested for civil rights in the 1960s 4Conducting Research List pertinent Q39s that pertain to your subject Ex Who What Where When Why How By writing as many pertinent Q39s before beginning the research on the speech topic you will maximize the available time to look for supporting material The audience must see a speaker as having good sense will and moral character ethoscredibility You build ethos through good research material Research materials are generally divided into 2 broad categories gt Primary sources Materials created by individualsgroups that were directly involved in the events as they were happening 10riginal documents Letters statements news footage created by those involved in the event 2Creative works Books poems paintings and dances 3Relics Cultural artifacts such asjewelry tools buildings clothing gt Secondary sources Created by persons who were not actual participants in an event A sources that summarizes or interprets the event Ex textbooks history books critical reviews and scholarly articles 5The Body The most effective method of organizing the body is to divide the speech into main points The main points serve as the foundation and by understanding them the audience should be able to easily understand the specific purpose A limit of 25 main points Use clear amp concise language Each should focus on one idea Points should be win the realm of the specific purpose statement Organizational Patterns Chronological Patterning Organizing presentation based on the order in which the main points occurred or will occur in time Ex Demonstrative how to presentations amp Narrative speeches Topical Patterning Organizing main points into categories or topics order is irrelevant bc each main topic is of equal importance Topical Compare amp Contrast Patterning Topical internal organizational patterns may also be used to comparecontrast main points Used when you wish to inform audience on similarities or differences about two things such as 2 colleges Topical Causal Patterning Examines the causes reasons for and effects results of of a speech subject The 2 structures are causes amp effects OR effects amp causes It39s usually too broad for a short speech Topical Pros amp Cons Patterning When you39re presenting 2 sides of an issue or reasons foragainst usually for a persuasive speech But when using for an informative speech information must be balanced in time content and delivery for both sides And it39s often ineffective for short speeches Topical Spatial Patterning Organized based on geographic location or physical proximity of the main points Ex Discussing the E W N S branches of a bank or the design of the atom from the nucleus outward or parts of an airplane from tail forward Magnitude Patterning This organizational pattern assigns importance to the main points so the organization of the order of the points does matter gt Audience members will be drawn to speeches that present ideas in an organizational pattern which is familiar to them gt German amp English speaking cultures follow the linear organizational pattern The structure is built around a thesis statement found in the intro the speech will then support the thesis in a straightforward manner w each paragraph building on the previous one the main idea is clearly laid out by use of the topic sentence gt Asian cultures prefer the circular pattern Depends on indirection amp implication speaker can39t explicitly tell the audience the specific point being conveyed so you must delicately circle a topic to imply its domain gt Russia prefers a deductive pattern Reason from the general to the specific which is opposite of the US which is to reason particular facts to a general conclusion gt Arh milhirnc IICD tho ihfllifi ID PI F FDP I39i ID nn H39prn gt 391 ILa ILI LJILLJIa J LJJa LII IIILIll Il VL Llll La La Il VL IJLl IILalllo Emphasize their history and use emotional appeals as their supporting data Types of Supporting Material Definitions Define words concepts or phrases in a variety of ways Examples Specific instances that support a general ideaconclusion There are actual examples true and hypothetical examples not true but believable quotimagine thatquot quotsuppose thatquot quotwhat ifquot Narratives Stories that explain a process or describe an event may be actualhypothetical adds interest excitement suspense clarity and vividness Analogies When you compare two people objects events or ideas The audience must be familiar wthe items being compared Literal analogies comparisons of like items comparing crime in Chicago to crime in NY Figurative analogies comparisons of unlike items comparing a face to the sun Testimony When you quoteparaphrase another39s words opinions or ideas Statistics Info presented in a numerical fashion Many important decisions are based on the use of statistics Remember to Round off your statistics Don39t use misleading statistics Don39t use statistics you don39t understand Don39t overwhelm your audience wstatistics and use visual aids to clarify statistics You may be able to combine 2 forms of supporting material ex use testimony to support an analogy and statistics win the narration 6lntroductions To introduce the speech topic to the audience amp facilitate the audience39s listening amp understanding of the speech39s purpose The 3 equally important elements To gain the audience39s attention clearly state the presentation39s central idea and clearly but briefly preview the presentation39s main points The 1st few words are the most difficult and important of a presentation Thesis Statement The central idea which summarizes but doesn39t make conclusions The purpose is to share info and create a general understanding of the topic It39s the MOST important statement in the intro It does not list the main points of the speech Preview tatement Introduces the main points of the presentation in the order they will be presented in the body It is the connector from the intro to the body In the US speakers gain audience39s attention w rhetorical Q39s a quotephrase a startling factstatistic example short story brief demonstration reference to specific event orjokehumorous story Use of humor is not appropriate in Japan Chinese culture is a listenerresponsible culture so it is offensive to tell an audience what they should listen for The listener is responsible for constructing the meaning of the message based on the common beliefs values and norms between the sender and the receiver US is a speakerresponsible culture it relies on a preview statement to provide the listener wan idea of where the speech is heading Methods for Gaining Audience39s Attention Make reference to the occasion specially if it39s at a graduation ceremonv memorial service or awards Lquotquot39quot quot 39 39 quot39quotllquot39 quot39quotquot39 39 quotquot l banquet Begin with a pertinent iustration a short story that39s representative of the entire speech topic It can be factual or hypothetical Create suspense about the speech topic to increase audience curiosity Use startling factsopinions wthe purpose to startle audience Always be certain the info can be substantiated realistic and representative of other opinionsfacts Begin wa rhetorical question To get the audience thinking about the answer and phrased to create a more precise mental answer from each audience member Open wa pertinent quotation Limit it to a few short lines and make sure to interpret the meaning of the quote Quotes can also be presented in the form of a question Open w a humorous remark Use a relevant humorous story joke or anecdote but it39s encouraged to first explore other introductory methods BEFORE deciding to use humor bc it can just result in awkwardness and increased anxiety for the speaker Open w a brief demonstration Such as a photograph 7Conclusions Purpose is to cue the audience that you are ending your speech summarize and REVIEW the main points of the speech and effectively bring closure Central idea must be restated and it39s recommended to return to the attention getting method used in the intro to tie everything in and finish Always pause before presenting the final exit line and maybe state it slightly slower than average rate of speech and thank the audience for their attention 8Outlining After researching the subject you need to begin to formally organize your info in the form of an outline Benefits include Enables to see how the speech is organized enables to see the amount of supporting material in each main point enables to revise the speech and enables to practice delivery Chapter 5 Th 2 TIIKI5l II 39l Il Fl Kl Ill5 c l l fkl fl In J Iypc U uuuuuuuvc JHCCLIICD The purpose of an informative speech is to share knowledge and create understanding 1 To exmain how to do something or how something works Involves both sequential organization step by step and the use of visual aidsprops that show how to complete a task The goal is effective audience instruction It should empower the audience to perform the task If the audience has a better understanding of how to do something then you have done your job After topic is chose you need to determine the audience39s needs knowing their familiarity amp skill level associated wthe topic Should follow a sequential design step by step process each main point is a step Can also follow a chronological or causational design Next prepare the materials Live demonstration is best for audience retention and enhances your credibility Finally provide the audience wresources from which they can learn more about the topic 2 Indudes words terms concepts theories philosophies situations or issues that may be very familiar to the audience Yet the speaker has a very unique opportunity to engage the audience by re imagining a common or not so common word event person or place 3 To entertain or inform to identify themselves belonging to a group culture or idea and to incite individuals to rise to action for a greater issue or cause Should be approached wthe goal of unveiling a story to the audience wthe hopes of creating a personal connection between the content and listeners Subject material needs to be carefully coordinated by speaken quot Transportationquot by incorporating vivid imagery and detail narratives have the potential ability to shape attitudes bc listeners are transported to the narrative world and make personal connections w the story so you can persuade or change an audiences attitudes toward a subject The power of anecdotes develop characters a plot line and contextually appropriate reason for presenting it in the first place There should be at least one or more intertwined throughout the presentation It39s important to place yourself in the role of the audience timing and pacing are very important factors Get full access to SPC 2608: Public Speaking - Study Guide You are subscribed to our Study Soup free trial.